Listed in this article are the common triggers of childhood allergy, and the symptoms of an allergy to HDM. Exposure to house dust mites (HDM) is recognised as a major cause of allergy, especially in children. Common allergic diseases in childhood are eczema, rhinitis (hayfever) and asthma. All three diseases can appear either separately or together.
It's a proven fact - patient education plus effective allergen avoidance can improve asthma. This fact was demonstrated in a large study on inner city families in the USA. Here's how the doctors did it. Inner city asthmatic children were individually tested for allergy triggers. Once identified they were then taught how to reduce exposure and given various interventions to help avoid contact with their triggers.
These step-by-step instructions will tell you how to eliminate or reduce allergy causing house dust mites (HDM) from a bed. Read carefully because beds are a favourite hiding place for mites.
All doctors agree that the first step in managing allergy symptoms is the avoidance of triggers where possible. It is possible, and easy to keep mites from establishing a colony in a bed. Follow these simple instructions to protect the vulnerable from mite exposure. The most vulnerable are developing children who may think it's normal to always sneeze, wheeze or itch.
Three most important functions to human life are heartbeat, breath and sleep. An active allergy to house dust mites (HDM) can interfere with breath and sleep. Wheezing, sneezing or itching, caused by an allergic reaction, is a known risk to sleep. In children, poor sleep can result in poor concentration at school. If chronic it can even threaten a child's self-esteem.
Allergic reactions to house dust mites can happen immediately or be delayed by several hours causing confusion in identifying the cause of a reaction. Allergy testing can help.
Ozone is an unstable gas and health risk for patients with lung conditions because, like tobacco smoke, ozone can irritate sensitive or damaged lung tissue making symptoms worse. For house dust mite (HDM) allergic asthma patients avoidance of both mite and ozone exposure is recommended. Ozone can be a product of poorly maintained photocopiers or build up in offices with poor ventilation.
Allergic dermatitis in dogs can be caused by allergens from house dust mites (HDM). The allergens are enzymes designed breakdown chitin, the hard material found in the outer shell of many animals and cell walls of fungi.
A quick review of house dust mite biology is an important aid when choosing the right anti-mite product. This is because the pore size in the material matters in blocking mites from finding a home.
What's the difference? Below is a short description of common mites that can be found indoors in many places around the world. They have different appetites and different needs. They all can cause allergy and environmental problems.
The allergen named Der p1 is an active digestive enzyme that can cause cell death in delicate defence cells in the lungs, nose, eyes or on skin. It dose this by 'melting' the glue like substance that binds cells together. The cell's death in turn gives Der p1 access to the body and blood stream.
Chronic perennial allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) can be caused by an allergy to the house dust mites (HDM). Doctors have recognized that the risk exists and that children, suffering from allergy, can be vulnerable to symptoms of temporary deafness cause by this condition. Now, new research describes a pathway from HDM exposure towards OME.
Both bedding and clothes can contain dust mites and their allergens. Mites will not be killed in a cold or warm wash but mite allergens will be made safe and washed away. Now, doctors have found a way of killing the mites too. They did this by putting essential oils in the wash, either alone or with a simple chemical solution.
In order to tackle dust mite infestation and related disease, doctors say it is essential to understand mite biology, where they live, and why they cause allergy. To help this understanding, listed below are ten bite-size facts in each of these three categories ending with advice on how to kill mites.
Doctors say; 'A diagnosis of an allergic disease is not complete until the trigger or triggers of the reaction are identified'. There are two common clinical ways to test for allergy triggers. Skin prick testing or blood tests often called laboratory RAST or specific-IgE testing. Patients can be confused about the difference. In this article we note what The Royal College of Physicians said about these tests.
Recently the BBC's on-line Earth News suggested that house dust mites were one of the deadliest animals in the UK because of their propensity to instigate severe allergic reactions, such as asthma. They report around 20% of the UK population is sensitised to the mite; 90% of the country's five million plus allergic asthmatics report the mite as a trigger; and in 2008 alone, over twelve hundred people died from an asthma attack.
New research describes four highly effective dust mite-killing products designed to help patients avoid mites in allergic disease management. They are simple, safe and cost effective in the battle to control indoor mite infestation.
Upon birth, almost all newborn's immune systems react to specific environmental factors transferred from mother to child during pregnancy. It is a form of maternal education into her 'world' and demonstrates that the child's immune system may be immature, but not inexperienced. In this article it is the genetically vulnerable foetus, continually exposed to maternal dust mite allergen Der p1 that is the focus of attention. The development of early asthma is the concern.
The chemical that makes house dust mites gather together in defense has been identified as neryl formate, a common scent used in foods and perfumes.
As far back as 1993 clinical reports began to document cases of severe allergic reactions from baked food made with mite infested wheat flour. In 2009 the World Allergy Organisation recognised this phenomenon by publishing a paper on the subject, it is called 'Pancake Syndrome', or oral mite anaphylaxis (OMA). Now medical opinion leaders are calling for all physicians to be made aware of OMA, how to diagnose it and how to educate patients on dust mite reduction.
Doctors say sleeping away from house dust mite allergens can result in an improvement in mite related asthma and eczema. But what product is best?
To make it easier to understand the origins of allergy and allergic reactions, doctors have devised a simple two-tiered framework. They have divided immune reactions into adaptive and innate responses. In doing this they have also made it easier for allergy patients to understand the problem.
The six different types of asthma are: allergic (most common); occupational (work associated); steroid resistant (severe asthma); drug related; exercise induced and asthma related to obesity. Although they are separate they can work together to make asthma worse. Exposure to dust mites can impact on all of these.
Soft toys are a major source of house dust mites and their allergens, and sleeping with soft toys is a significant risk factor for house dust mite sensitisation. Recent clinical research has identified three practical DIY methods to control house dust mite infestation in children's soft toys.
Doctors and child psychiatrists looked at the harm from poor sleeping patterns in children and identified active allergies as a risk. They then coined the phrase, 'a need for good sleep hygiene'. Sleep hygiene includes, 'avoiding influences likely to make it difficult to get to sleep and sleep soundly'. Poor breathing, coughing or itching from dust mite exposure is a known risk to sound sleep - avoidance has been shown to be beneficial.
Thirty-three years ago scientists investigated the contents of house dust mite droppings. They found two species of fungus along with an active digestive enzyme acting as a major mite allergen. By 2011 fourteen separate mite allergens had been identified along with DNA from bacteria and mites, chitin and quanine. This is a review of some of the investigations.
Child psychiatrist, Professor Gregory Stores wrote: 'Persistent sleeplessness [hyperactivity] in children, including those with a learning disability, should not be seen as inevitable but as treatable and often preventable' and 'Allergies must also be added to the list of medical conditions that induce or aggravate children's sleep problems'. Wise words from an opinion leader in the field of child psychiatry, yet ten years earlier, eminent allergist Dr Harry Morrow Brown demonstrated the effectiveness of dietary manipulation by simply eliminating allergenic foods from children's diets.
The reason why so many people are allergic to house dust mites is now clear. One of the mite's major allergens (found it its droppings) is an aggressive digestive enzyme that can attack and melt the 'glue' that binds delicate cells together. These cells are in the nose, lungs, eyes or on vulnerable skin. The mite's enzyme is so powerful that it can actually kill cells causing a breach in the body's defences. In mite sensitive people the enzyme's attack results in an immune reaction that is so fierce it can damage adjacent healthy cells causing a chain reaction of harm known as an allergic reaction. This is how house dust mites can cause allergy.
Below are photographs of allergy testing for common indoor allergens, including dust mites. The photographs are examples from case studies carried out by the late Dr Harry Morrow Brown and demonstrate the results of skin prick testing in allergy, a common clinical procedure used by doctors to identify triggers to avoid. Allergy testing, such as this, is used in conjunction with a detailed medical history of the patient, including family background. The photographs demonstrate the quality of care needed in diagnosing and treating an allergic condition.
Hard indoor flooring will not secure floating dust. Looped carpet pile will hold dust securely. Non-looped carpets will catch dust particles then release them easily when vacuumed. The choice is yours.
A recent photograph clearly shows two important biological aids for house dust mites. One is the sensing antennae located on the mite's body and two the gripping suckers at the end of each leg.
Evidence is mounting that a form of severe oral allergic reaction associated with mites may also have a non-allergic element entwined as a trigger. The reaction is linked to an established atopic dust mite allergy; ingestion of foods made with mite-infested flour; and a known hypersensitivity to aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Allergic reactions are at best a nuisance, at worst harmful or even life threatening. Now a review recently published by doctors in Nature asks the reader to think again. Allergic reactions, when not excessive and if appropriately targeted, can be beneficial. They are a warning that a substance from the environment threatens the barrier defences of the nose, lung, skin, or gut. House dust mites can threaten the nose, lung and skin.
Ultra-fine diesel particles from traffic can carry toxic metals, grass pollen and house dust mite allergens deep into lungs.
By cutting core sections from an old box-spring mattress a scientist found seven different species of mite infestations. Among the species identified were house dust mites, storage mites and one follicle mite, all of which are known to cause disease in humans. 95% of the mites found were within 1.5 cm of the top of the mattress.
House dust is a complex mixture containing many different foreign proteins, as well as a variety of arthropods [i.e. mites], nematodes [worms], bacteria, fungi and human skin scales. Ventilation, combined with controlled humidity is key to controlling the levels of dust exposure to vulnerable lungs.
In 1990 UK scientists designed a clinical study to identify 120 babies 'at risk from asthma' at birth. The infants came from parents with a history of asthma or allergic disease, or from families with a child already diagnosed with an allergic condition. To further identify the 'at risk' babies at birth, the scientists looked at the cord blood levels to measure total IgE antibodies.
If you think house dust mite (HDM) allergies and food allergies are separate, think again! An allergen from the mite has been found in poorly stored wheat flour and in the human gut. Doctors know that infested flour can cause a rare form of severe allergic reaction, but are unsure of what effects the allergen has on the gut. World Allergy Organisation advice is to keep opened flour in the fridge or freezer to prevent HDM infestation.
Although house dust mites can survive without eating skin scales they are their favourite food. The reason is because a decomposing scale offers the mite a ready-made plateful of nourishing foods including yeasts, bacteria, fungi and microorganisms. The scale itself can be hard for the mite to digest, as is evident by traces of scales found in the mite's dropping.
Presented here are random Tweets posted on @housedustmite. They are part of a collection of over 2,652 tweets about dust mites, how they live and die and the diseases they cause. This collection of Tweets will change periodically to promote public interest in the mite and provide information on how to control infestation indoors.
Presented here are five different photographs of adult house dust mites accompanied with facts of interest. They are here to encourage the study of mites in schools. Although the five mites have been seen through a scanning electronic micrograph, it is worth remembering that each mite in reality is approximately the size of this dot . in other words barely visible.
Millions of years ago the house dust mite and the sheep scab mite lived together as parasites of warm-blooded animals. At some stage in time the house dust mite became a scavenger less dependent upon the health of its host for survival. By comparing the lives of the two mites living today echoes of past parasitic behaviour become apparent. The house dust mite is not as harmless as portrayed.
The net or membrane that holds a house dust mite dropping together is a semi-permeable network of fibres that contains proteins and a tough protective material called chitin. It is created in the hind gut of the mite by a valve that binds several clumps of various matter together into one 'poop'. Within this mass are enzymes that hold an ancient secret.
The link between allergic rhinitis and the development of asthma is confirmed. Research found that, in allergic rhinitis house dust mite sensitivity (over other allergens) increases the risk of the development of asthma.
A clinical study looked at the effectiveness of 53 anti-dust mite pillow protectors or pillowcases purchased from 10 different countries. The aim was to help manufacturers to produce medical textiles of quality and to provide consumers with a suggested standard when reviewing anti-mite packaging information. The major finding of the study was that plastic, and a selection of tightly woven covers, completely prevented mite penetration and blocked more than 99% of allergen movement through the fabric.
To block house dust mites from entering a fabric researchers recommend that the customer looks for a product with a thread count greater than 246/in2 (threads per square inch) in a smooth fabric made from twisted cotton or synthetic fibres.
Living in an old mattress doctors found several allergy causing mite colonies plus twenty-six different species of fungus. The extraordinary amount of fungi may have been helped by the fact that a house dust mite's (HDM) gut is not toxic enough to kill all fungi, instead selected species pass through unharmed and grow again in damp, dark, still environments. This event has been photographed using a sophisticated scanning electron microscope as seen below.
A female house dust mite may lay 1 to 3 eggs a day. After 6 to 12 days the egg will hatch producing a six-legged larva which will feed then pass through 2 nymphal stages before emerging as an adult to join the colony. Like many animals a growing mite will shed its temporary outer shell-like covering. While a new covering is being formed an immature mite is vulnerable to attack from other mites.
To search for anti allergy fabric that will act to block house dust mites (HDM) from finding a home follow the description set by a clinical study. The description is also for DIY fabric covers for cushions, duvet covers, or pillow cases, etc.
A newly discarded skin scale is not considered food for a hungry house dust mite. To become mite food the skin scale has to go through a process of decomposing change. It must become swollen with water, carry bacteria, microorganisms, yeasts and fats broken down by fungi.